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      Individual_Name: 
        Carrie V. Kappel
      Organisation_Name: 
        National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)
      Contact_Information: 
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            Address: 
              Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                kappel@nceas.ucsb.edu
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  Date_Stamp: 
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      2021-03-30
  Metadata_Standard_Name: 
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      Citation: 
        Citation: 
          Title: 
            Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Maximum Monthly 
            Climatological Mean, 2002-2013 - Hawaii
          Date: 
            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
              Date_Type: 
                Date_Type_Code: 
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          Date: 
            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
              Date_Type: 
                Date_Type_Code: 
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            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
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              Individual_Name: 
                Carrie V. Kappel
              Organisation_Name: 
                National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)
              Contact_Information: 
                Contact: 
                  Address: 
                    Address: 
                      Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                        kappel@nceas.ucsb.edu
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          Cited_Responsible_Party: 
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              Individual_Name: 
                Kimberly A. Selkoe
              Organisation_Name: 
                National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)
              Contact_Information: 
                Contact: 
                  Address: 
                    Address: 
                      Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                        selkoe@nceas.ucsb.edu
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                Ocean Tipping Points (OTP)
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                Contact: 
                  Address: 
                    Address: 
                      Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                        info@oceantippingpoints.org
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                          http://oceantippingpoints.org
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                Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS)
              Contact_Information: 
                Contact: 
                  Address: 
                    Address: 
                      Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                        info@pacioos.org
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                        URL: 
                          http://pacioos.org
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          Other_Citation_Details: 
            Related publications: Wedding LM, Lecky J, Gove JM, Walecka HR, 
            Donovan MK, et al. (2018) Advancing the integration of spatial 
            data to map human and natural drivers on coral reefs. PLOS ONE 
            13(3): e0189792. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189792; 
            Gove JM, Williams GJ, McManus MA, Heron SF, Sandin SA, et al. 
            (2013) Quantifying climatological ranges and anomalies for Pacific 
            coral reef ecosystems. PLOS ONE 8(4): e61974. 
            https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.
      Abstract: 
        Solar irradiance is one of the most important factors influencing 
        coral reefs. As the majority of their nutrients are obtained from 
        symbiotic photosynthesizing organisms, reef-building corals need 
        irradiance as a fundamental source of energy. Seasonally-low 
        irradiance at high latitudes may be linked to reduced growth rates in 
        corals and may limit reef calcification to shallower depths than that 
        observed at lower latitudes. However, high levels of irradiance can 
        lead to light-induced damage, production of free radicals, and in 
        combination with increased temperatures, can exacerbate coral 
        bleaching. This layer represents the maximum monthly climatological 
        mean of irradiance (mol/m2/day) from 2002-2013. Irradiance is here 
        represented by PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), which is the 
        spectrum of light that is important for photosynthesis. Monthly and 
        8-day 4-km (0.0417-degree) spatial resolution data were obtained from 
        the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua 
        satellite instrument from the NASA OceanColor website 
        (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov).
        
        A quality control mask was applied to remove spurious data associated 
        with shallow water, following Gove et al., 2013. Monthly climatologies 
        were calculated from monthly time series using only full years over 
        the Ocean Tipping Points (OTP) project time frame of interest 
        (2002-2013), averaging for all same-months (e.g., January). Nearshore 
        map pixels with no data were filled with values from the nearest 
        neighboring valid offshore pixel by using a grid of points and the 
        Near Analysis tool in ArcGIS then converting points to raster.
      Purpose: 
        This layer was developed as part of a geospatial database of key 
        anthropogenic pressures to coastal waters of the Main Hawaiian Islands 
        for the Ocean Tipping Points (OTP) project 
        (http://oceantippingpoints.org). Ocean tipping points occur when 
        shifts in human use or environmental conditions result in large, and 
        sometimes abrupt, impacts to marine ecosystems. The ability to predict 
        and understand ocean tipping points can enhance ecosystem management, 
        including critical coral reef management and policies to protect 
        ecosystem services produced by coral reefs. The goal of the Ocean 
        Tipping Points Hawaii case study was to gather, process, and map 
        spatial information on environmental and human-based drivers of coral 
        reef ecosystem conditions.
      Credit: 
        The Ocean Tipping Points project, 2016. Please acknowledge the Ocean 
        Tipping Points project as a source when these data are used in the 
        preparation of reports, papers, publications, maps, and other 
        products. When applying these data for publication, please reference 
        and cite the following journal article: Wedding LM, Lecky J, Gove JM, 
        Walecka HR, Donovan MK, et al. (2018) Advancing the integration of 
        spatial data to map human and natural drivers on coral reefs. PLOS ONE 
        13(3): e0189792. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189792.
      Point_Of_Contact: 
        Responsible_Party: 
          Individual_Name: 
            Carrie V. Kappel
          Organisation_Name: 
            National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)
          Contact_Information: 
            Contact: 
              Address: 
                Address: 
                  Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                    kappel@nceas.ucsb.edu
              Online_Resource: 
                Online_Resource: 
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                    URL: 
                      http://oceantippingpoints.org/about-us/people#Carrie
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      Descriptive_Keywords: 
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            Earth Science > Biosphere > Aquatic Ecosystems > Reef Habitat
          Keyword: 
            Earth Science > Biosphere > Ecosystems > Marine Ecosystems > Reef 
            > Coral Reef
          Keyword: 
            Earth Science > Biosphere > Vegetation > Photosynthetically Active 
            Radiation
          Keyword: 
            Earth Science > Human Dimensions > Human Settlements > Coastal Areas
          Keyword: 
            Earth Science > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
          Keyword: 
            Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Optics > Photosynthetically Active 
            Radiation
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          Keyword: 
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      Resource_Constraints: 
        Legal_Constraints: 
          Use_Limitation: 
            Please contact the Ocean Tipping Points (OTP) project in advance 
            of applying these data to project work so that the principal 
            investigator, Carrie Kappel (kappel@nceas.ucsb.edu), can track and 
            communicate data uses and ensure no duplicate efforts are 
            underway. The data may be used and redistributed for free but is 
            not intended for legal use, since it may contain inaccuracies. 
            Neither the data Contributor, University of Hawaii, PacIOOS, NOAA, 
            State of Hawaii nor the United States Government, nor any of their 
            employees or contractors, makes any warranty, express or implied, 
            including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a 
            particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the 
            accuracy, completeness, or usefulness, of this information.
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                Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS)
              Date: 
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      Language: 
        eng
      Topic_Category: 
        Topic_Category_Code: 
          biota
      Topic_Category: 
        Topic_Category_Code: 
          climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
      Topic_Category: 
        Topic_Category_Code: 
          oceans
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        Citation: 
          Title: 
            Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Maximum Monthly 
            Climatological Mean, 2002-2013 - Hawaii
          Date: 
            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
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            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
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              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
              Date_Type: 
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              Individual_Name: 
                Carrie V. Kappel
              Organisation_Name: 
                National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)
              Contact_Information: 
                Contact: 
                  Address: 
                    Address: 
                      Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                        kappel@nceas.ucsb.edu
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      Abstract: 
        Solar irradiance is one of the most important factors influencing 
        coral reefs. As the majority of their nutrients are obtained from 
        symbiotic photosynthesizing organisms, reef-building corals need 
        irradiance as a fundamental source of energy. Seasonally-low 
        irradiance at high latitudes may be linked to reduced growth rates in 
        corals and may limit reef calcification to shallower depths than that 
        observed at lower latitudes. However, high levels of irradiance can 
        lead to light-induced damage, production of free radicals, and in 
        combination with increased temperatures, can exacerbate coral 
        bleaching. This layer represents the maximum monthly climatological 
        mean of irradiance (mol/m2/day) from 2002-2013. Irradiance is here 
        represented by PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), which is the 
        spectrum of light that is important for photosynthesis. Monthly and 
        8-day 4-km (0.0417-degree) spatial resolution data were obtained from 
        the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua 
        satellite instrument from the NASA OceanColor website 
        (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov).
        
        A quality control mask was applied to remove spurious data associated 
        with shallow water, following Gove et al., 2013. Monthly climatologies 
        were calculated from monthly time series using only full years over 
        the Ocean Tipping Points (OTP) project time frame of interest 
        (2002-2013), averaging for all same-months (e.g., January). Nearshore 
        map pixels with no data were filled with values from the nearest 
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      Citation: 
        Citation: 
          Title: 
            Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Maximum Monthly 
            Climatological Mean, 2002-2013 - Hawaii
          Date: 
            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
              Date_Type: 
                Date_Type_Code: 
                  creation
          Date: 
            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
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            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
              Date_Type: 
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              Individual_Name: 
                Carrie V. Kappel
              Organisation_Name: 
                National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)
              Contact_Information: 
                Contact: 
                  Address: 
                    Address: 
                      Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                        kappel@nceas.ucsb.edu
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                  Address: 
                    Address: 
                      Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                        info@pacioos.org
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                          http://pacioos.org
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      Abstract: 
        Solar irradiance is one of the most important factors influencing 
        coral reefs. As the majority of their nutrients are obtained from 
        symbiotic photosynthesizing organisms, reef-building corals need 
        irradiance as a fundamental source of energy. Seasonally-low 
        irradiance at high latitudes may be linked to reduced growth rates in 
        corals and may limit reef calcification to shallower depths than that 
        observed at lower latitudes. However, high levels of irradiance can 
        lead to light-induced damage, production of free radicals, and in 
        combination with increased temperatures, can exacerbate coral 
        bleaching. This layer represents the maximum monthly climatological 
        mean of irradiance (mol/m2/day) from 2002-2013. Irradiance is here 
        represented by PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), which is the 
        spectrum of light that is important for photosynthesis. Monthly and 
        8-day 4-km (0.0417-degree) spatial resolution data were obtained from 
        the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua 
        satellite instrument from the NASA OceanColor website 
        (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov).
        
        A quality control mask was applied to remove spurious data associated 
        with shallow water, following Gove et al., 2013. Monthly climatologies 
        were calculated from monthly time series using only full years over 
        the Ocean Tipping Points (OTP) project time frame of interest 
        (2002-2013), averaging for all same-months (e.g., January). Nearshore 
        map pixels with no data were filled with values from the nearest 
        neighboring valid offshore pixel by using a grid of points and the 
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      Citation: 
        Citation: 
          Title: 
            Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Maximum Monthly 
            Climatological Mean, 2002-2013 - Hawaii
          Date: 
            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
              Date_Type: 
                Date_Type_Code: 
                  creation
          Date: 
            Date: 
              Date: 
                Date: 
                  2017-03-14
              Date_Type: 
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              Date: 
                Date: 
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              Organisation_Name: 
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                        URL: 
                          http://oceantippingpoints.org
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      Abstract: 
        Solar irradiance is one of the most important factors influencing 
        coral reefs. As the majority of their nutrients are obtained from 
        symbiotic photosynthesizing organisms, reef-building corals need 
        irradiance as a fundamental source of energy. Seasonally-low 
        irradiance at high latitudes may be linked to reduced growth rates in 
        corals and may limit reef calcification to shallower depths than that 
        observed at lower latitudes. However, high levels of irradiance can 
        lead to light-induced damage, production of free radicals, and in 
        combination with increased temperatures, can exacerbate coral 
        bleaching. This layer represents the maximum monthly climatological 
        mean of irradiance (mol/m2/day) from 2002-2013. Irradiance is here 
        represented by PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), which is the 
        spectrum of light that is important for photosynthesis. Monthly and 
        8-day 4-km (0.0417-degree) spatial resolution data were obtained from 
        the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua 
        satellite instrument from the NASA OceanColor website 
        (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov).
        
        A quality control mask was applied to remove spurious data associated 
        with shallow water, following Gove et al., 2013. Monthly climatologies 
        were calculated from monthly time series using only full years over 
        the Ocean Tipping Points (OTP) project time frame of interest 
        (2002-2013), averaging for all same-months (e.g., January). Nearshore 
        map pixels with no data were filled with values from the nearest 
        neighboring valid offshore pixel by using a grid of points and the 
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              Extent_Type_Code: 
                Boolean: 
                  1
              West_Bound_Longitude: 
                Decimal: 
                  -160.41246354980814
              East_Bound_Longitude: 
                Decimal: 
                  -154.56326617912035
              South_Bound_Latitude: 
                Decimal: 
                  18.755036208219373
              North_Bound_Latitude: 
                Decimal: 
                  22.42373568629166
      Coupling_Type: 
        Coupling_Type: 
          tight
      Contains_Operations: 
        Operation_Metadata: 
          Operation_Name: 
            GetCapabilities
          Distributed_Computing_Platforms: 
          Connect_Point: 
            Online_Resource: 
              Linkage: 
                URL: 
                  http://geo.pacioos.hawaii.edu/geoserver/PACIOOS/gwc/service/wms?service=WMS&version=1.1.1&request=GetCapabilities&tiled=true
              Protocol: 
                OGC:WMS-C
              Name: 
                OGC-WMS-C
              Description: 
                Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service - Cached (WMS-C). 
                Use of WMS-C is similar to traditional WMS but with the 
                addition of the "tiled=true" parameter, which triggers 
                GeoServer to pull map tiles from GeoWebCache if they have been 
                previously generated. This can dramatically improve 
                performance, especially for larger datasets. Supported map 
                formats include JPEG and PNG. Supported info formats include 
                GeoJSON, GML, HTML, and plain text.
              Function: 
                OnLine_Function_Code: 
                  download
      Operates_On: 
  Distribution_Information: 
    Distribution: 
      Distributor: 
        Distributor: 
          Distributor_Contact: 
            Responsible_Party: 
              Individual_Name: 
              Organisation_Name: 
                Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS)
              Contact_Information: 
                Contact: 
                  Address: 
                    Address: 
                      Electronic_Mail_Address: 
                        info@pacioos.org
                  Online_Resource: 
                    Online_Resource: 
                      Linkage: 
                        URL: 
                          http://pacioos.org
                      Protocol: 
                        http
                      Application_Profile: 
                        web browser
                      Function: 
                        OnLine_Function_Code: 
                          information
              Role: 
                Role_Code: 
                  publisher
          Distributor_Transfer_Options: 
            Digital_Transfer_Options: 
              Online: 
                Online_Resource: 
                  Linkage: 
                    URL: 
                      http://geo.pacioos.hawaii.edu/geoserver/
                  Protocol: 
                    http
                  Name: 
                    GeoServer
                  Description: 
                    This URL provides access to this dataset via GeoServer, 
                    including multiple output formats and an OpenLayers viewer.
                  Function: 
                    OnLine_Function_Code: 
                      download
          Distributor_Transfer_Options: 
            Digital_Transfer_Options: 
              Online: 
                Online_Resource: 
                  Linkage: 
                    URL: 
                      http://geo.pacioos.hawaii.edu/geoexplorer/
                  Protocol: 
                    http
                  Name: 
                    GeoExplorer
                  Description: 
                    This URL provides a viewer for this dataset.
                  Function: 
                    OnLine_Function_Code: 
                      download
          Distributor_Transfer_Options: 
            Digital_Transfer_Options: 
              Online: 
                Online_Resource: 
                  Linkage: 
                    URL: 
                      http://pacioos.org/projects/oceantippingpoints/#data
                  Protocol: 
                    http
                  Name: 
                    PacIOOS Ocean Tipping Points (OTP) Data Viewer
                  Description: 
                    This URL provides a viewer and/or data access for this 
                    dataset.
                  Function: 
                    OnLine_Function_Code: 
                      download
  Data_Quality_Information: 
    Data_Quality: 
      Scope: 
        Scope: 
          Hierarchy_Level: 
            Scope_Code: 
              dataset
      Lineage: 
        Lineage: 
          Statement: 
            2017-03-14T00:00:00Z OGC web services (WMS and WFS) enabled by 
            PacIOOS via GeoServer. Original data from source provider may have 
            been reformatted, reprojected, or adjusted in other ways to 
            optimize these capabilities.
  Metadata_Maintenance: 
    Maintenance_Information: 
      Maintenance_And_Update_Frequency: 
      Maintenance_Note: 
        This record was translated and enhanced from GeoServer OGC Web 
        Services (OWS) using PacIOOS software.